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A Review of Research Perspectives Concerning English Reading

     
     
    A Review of Research Perspectives
    Concerning English Reading for Non-English Students
     
     A Review of Research Perspectives Concerning English Reading for Non-English Students代寫
    Introduction
     
    There is littledoubt that Englishreading plays a very important role in studying, researching and a lotother learning activities for many non-English students all over the world.Many researches have been done on different perspectives of English reading for non-English students, from its importance, the selection oftraining methods, to the proactive ness of extracurricular reading. There are so many researches out there that it is necessary and useful to sort them out as an attempt to extract the best out of them. Through comparison and analysis, this essay takes an in-depth look into some published researches on English reading for non-English students. After critically examining a range of studies on this topic and identifying key findings, this essay selects ten researches for detailed elaboration and analysis. They are divided into three groups based on their research perspectives: action research, post-positivism and interpretive. In each group, this essay also gives explanation of why they are grouped together,assessment on the relative strengths and limitations of varying approaches and some brief suggestions to improve it. In the end, this essay gives a conclusion in order to summarize the key points of the whole essay and to offer some brief suggestions and future prospective for the researches on the English reading for non-English students.
     
    Group One: Action Research
     
    Researches adopting action research perspective usually aims to solve a problem, an issue or a reflective process of progressive problem solving. It differentiates from other perspective by laying the focus on the discussion of action and strategies to deal with an issue.
     A Review of Research Perspectives Concerning English Reading for Non-English Students代寫
    Four of the researches are grouped into this section, which refers to the action research perspective of researches. These researches are A Synthesis of Research on Language of Reading Instruction for English Language Learners by Robert E. Slavinand Alan Cheung, English-as-a-Second-Language Reading Instruction in the United States: A Research by Jill Fitzgerald, and Effective Reading Programs for English Language Learners and Other Language-Minority Students byAlan Cheungaand Robert E. Slavinb, and Reciprocal Teaching of Reading Comprehension Strategies for Students with Learning Disabilities Who Use English as a Second Language by Janette KettmannKlingner and Sharon Vaughn.
     
    In the first research, the researches designed and carried out a series of researches including interviews, focus group, surveys and other methods to figure out which reading instruction was the most effective and efficient for English language learners(Slavinb& Cheung, 2005).The second research was also done to find out a good reading instruction for non-English students in the United States(Fitzgerald, 1995). The third research aimed to come up with an effective reading program based on the result of the research(Cheunga&Slavinb, 2010).Last but not least, the fourth research was done to see whether reciprocal teaching was a good reading comprehension strategy for non-English students(KlingnerJ.K.& Vaughn S, 1996).
    .
    A Review of Research Perspectives Concerning English Reading for Non-English Students代寫 
    These researches share some common characteristics, but the most important onesare their purposes and the research methods. It is obvious that they all focus more on the how to better do English reading or what to do in order to improve English reading skillsfor non-English students, and that the same research method, action research, is adopted in these researches.
     
    Although these researches are similar in terms of topic, purpose and research method, there are still some slight differences among them. First, some adopt more research methods than one. In A Synthesis of Research on Language of Reading Instruction for English Language Learners, focus group, experiments and other methods are adopted to test which instruction works the best(Slavinb& Cheung, 2005). In addition, these researches may aim at improving English reading skills for non-English students with differentconditions. English-as-a-Second-Language Reading Instruction in the United States: A Research is done on non-native people in the Unites States(Fitzgerald, 1995), while Reciprocal Teaching of Reading Comprehension Strategies for Students with Learning Disabilities Who Use English as a Second Language is done for those who have difficulties in learning(KlingnerJ.K.& Vaughn S, 1996).
     
    Just as every coin has two sides, action researchhas its own strength and limitation as well. As its aim shows, action research highlights the action, so it can gives very practical advice and direction to solve the problem or improve the issue that is looked into in the research. It can be found from any of the four researches in this group that some specific actions are suggested or discouraged.
     
    On the other hand, there are also some limitations of this approach. Since the aim lies in the finding on actions, such approach cannot give adequate or in-depth understanding of the issue. Take Reciprocal Teaching of Reading Comprehension Strategies for Students with Learning Disabilities Who Use English as a Second Language as an example. In this research, the readers of this research can find out the effectiveness of different reciprocal teaching of reading strategies, but the reader cannot have an in-depth understanding of what causes the difficulties in reading for these students and other issues involved. This limitation can be improved if another approach, such as Post-positivism, Interpretivism or Criticalapproach, is also adopted(KlingnerJ.K.& Vaughn S, 1996).
     
    Group Two: Post-positivism Approach
     
    Another research perspective that is widely used is post-positivism approach. Researchers adopting this methodbelieve that accept that specific situations of the researchers, such as their background, knowledge, experience, valuesand many other aspects can influence their observation, which is the opposite of the opinion held by positivists. In order to ensure the objectivityof the result, possible effects of biases are taken into consideration when designing and carrying out the researches under such approach.
     
    Three of the ten selected researches are grouped into the research perspective of post-positivism. These three researches include A Survey of English Reading outside Class among Non-English Majors at Tsinghua University by Li Ruifangand other researches, an empirical study of after-class English reading activities of non-English majors in China by Wang Ling and He Ning, and also the Study of College English Extracurricular Reading done by WEN Ying, JIANG Ye-meiand FANG Bao.
     
    The first research in this group was a survey to find out whether, how often, how much, why, when and where Chinese university students did their English reading after class(Li, et al, 2004). The second one was a research on the similar topic done as in an empirical approach(Wang & He, 2001), followed by the last research, which was done through focus group and surveys on the same topic(Wen, Jiang& Fang, 2007).
     A Review of Research Perspectives Concerning English Reading for Non-English Students代寫
    It is obvious that these researches are done on basically the same topic: English extracurricular reading for English students in China. They are also done in more post-positivismways such as surveys. Therefore, it is quite under expectation that they are grouped together.
     
    For post-positivism approach, it is accepted by many people due to high objectivity. This approach considers many factors in designing and implementation of the research, especially including the possible effects of biases brought by the researchers.For example, in the research A Survey of English Reading outside Class among Non-English Majors at Tsinghua University, the research was done in form of a survey. In the designing of the questions in the survey, the researches adopted both questions with choices and a few open questions(Li, et al, 2004). In this way, the researchers would not have to involve a lot of personal interpretation of the answer.
     A Review of Research Perspectives Concerning English Reading for Non-English Students代寫
    However, for the three researches in this group, they are more limited to the students in some areas in China. The first research was done specially on university students in Tsinghua University, which might not be typical students in China(Li, et al, 2004). Therefore, the value of this research might not be that high since it was not
     
    Slavinb R.E. & Cheung A, 2005, A Synthesis of Research on Language of Reading Instruction for English Language Learners, retrieved on 8 May 2013

     
    Taylor & Francis, 2000, English Learners Reading English: What We Know, What We Need to Know, retrieved on 2 May 2013

     
    Wang L & He N, 2001, an empirical study of after-class English reading activities of non-English majors in China, retrieved on 8 May 2013

     
     
    WEN Y, JIANG Y&FANG, 2007, The Study of College English Extracurricular Reading, retrieved on 8 May 2013

     
     
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